A safe, fast and elegant method for the study of solids.
The X-ray radiation with a shorter wavelength than light has to penetrate the material property. On their way through crystalline material, which is constructed by regular atomic lattice, the X-ray light is diffracted. From the interference patterns of the diffracted X-ray beam, the distances between the atomic layers can be determined.
The method of X-ray diffraction (XRD) is mainly applied where statements about the present chemical compounds are needed. Crystalline substances can be identified by the type and quantity of its constituents and their structure is determined. The method can also be applied to samples that are not completely crystalline, but only show some regularity in the molecular structure (amorphous materials). The chemical components (phases) can be identified (qualitative and quantitative phase analysis), whose ultra microscopic particle sizes are measured (Crystallite Analysis) and the spatial arrangement of the atoms are determined in the compounds.
In addition to the applications in physics, chemistry, mineralogy, metallurgy and biology, the X-ray diffraction is used in industry as a research method for many testing and monitoring tasks. Many industrial products are routinely checked by X-ray diffraction, so that faulty products can be eliminated already in production. Other Applications include jewel investigations and authentication of paintings and other art works.
In medicine, X-ray diffraction for the study of crystallites (bladder stones, gallstones, kidney stones, dental calculus, enamel, bone structures, etc.) is used. Many compounds can occur in different modifications. These compounds, although chemically the same, show different physical properties. Carbon such as graphite, C may occur both in the form of the cubic diamond as well as in the hexagonal form.
- Mineralogical analysis (qualitative and quantitative), quality assurance.
- Review of the raw materials and ingredients, microstructure investigation, cement and plaster studies, analysis of efflorescence, deposits, decomposition and weathering products, expert opinions.
- Analysis of the composition of historic building materials.
- Analysis of deposits and weathering products.
- Analysis of residues, soil testing, construction material investigation (eg asbestos), analysis of deposits and rainfall.
Metal and metal-processing industry:
- Quality assurance, retained austenite, determination of alloys, microstructure analysis, corrosion monitoring, ect.
Thermal utilization, energy generation:
- Monitoring the combustion chamber lining, investigation of the refractory part, slag investigations, analysis of the solid residues.
- Investigation of crystallites such as bladder stones, gallstones, kidney stones, dental calculus, enamel, bone structures.
- Monitoring of the raw material of paper. Quality assurance.
- Investigations of fibers (cellulose) and qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of fillers and inorganic pigments.
Our modern, computer-controlled X-ray Laboratory provides all interested parties the method of X-ray powder diffraction:
Wavelengths: Cu radiation
Phase Analytical Methods:
Qualitative phase analysis
Quantitative phase analysis
- standardless method
- internal Standard
- external standard
- modification analysis
- Lattice constant refinement
- purity tests
- Mixed crystal analyzes